23:1And all-together the multitude of them having stood-up led him on Pilate; .2and they began to accuse him saying, “This-person we found throughly-turning our nation, and hindering to give personal-tributes to Caesar, and saying himself to be Christ a king.” .3But Pilate asked him saying, “Are you the king of the Judeans?” And the (one) having answered said to him, “You say.” .4But Pilate said towards the chief-priests and the crowds, “I found not-one cause in this man.” .5But the (people) used-to be-strong-on saying that, “He shakes-up the people teaching down to the whole of Judea, even having begun from Galilee until here.” .6But Pilate having heard asked if the man is a Galilean; .7and having fully-known that he is out-from the authority of Herod he sent him up towards Herod, him also being in Jerusalem in these days.
Following the events recorded in Luke chapter 22, after entirely every one of the council-of-elders of the people (quite all of the fullness of the Sanhedrin) stood-up early in the morning of Tuesday 13th Nisan – they led Jesus (directed, conducted, conveyed him) down to/on Pilate. Pontus Pilate was leading in command of Judea from 25/26-36 A.D.; he was a Gentile who was the imperial prefect, procurator, governor of/from the Roman Emperor over the people in Judea, plus Samaria north of Judea and Idumea south of Judea.
They started to accuse Jesus (to actively speak publicly against him as in a court proceeding) saying…
- “This-person we found throughly-turning our nation (the word translated as “nation” in this phrase is ethnos in Greek which could also be translated as “Gentile” – however, in this context it is referring to the nation of Israel/Judah, the ethnic-group that claims to be a nation of God’s people; he is completely turning our nation around, twisting it 180 degrees, being perverse, distorting it, turning it the wrong way),
- and hindering to give personal-tributes to Caesar (blocking, preventing people from paying a personal allowance or tax, the tax usually levied on persons and their property on a yearly basis, to the Roman Emperor),
- and saying himself to be Christ a king (the Anointed-one, the Messiah who is a royal ruler).”
Pilate asked him (inquired from him about this in particular) saying, “Are emphatically you the king of the Judeans (in Greek there is a definite word for “you” plus the verb meaning “you are” giving emphasis – are you yourself the royal ruler over all the people who are Judeans; referring to the descendants of Israel/Jacob)?” If these words were spoken as a statement instead of as a question, then he was stating a true fact.
Jesus answered by saying (he judicially replied bringing to light by speaking) to him, “Emphatically you say (you yourself are saying this).” Jesus’ answer here was a definite confirmation to Pilate that what he said was right; the collection of words that he laid out before him was true.
Pilate said towards the chief/high priests and the throngs of people who had also assembled by this time, “I found not one cause (not one causation, nothing causative, nothing responsible) in this man.”
But during that past time the people were continuing to be strong (having strength) on saying that…
- “He shakes-up the people (agitates the mass or group of people collectively as one unit, one united assembly; this word usually refers to the descendants of Israel/Jacob; he causes them to rock in an upward waving motion, agitating them to move to-and-fro as a quake, getting the people riled-up)
- teaching (instructing) the people all the way from top to bottom of the Judea (throughout the entire area of Judea were Jerusalem is located), emphatically to the degree and in explanation that his teaching started from Galilee continuing as far as this location (Jerusalem).”
After Pilate heard what they said he asked (with familiarity he inquired directly from them for information on this topic) if the man (Jesus) is a Galilean; and after he fully-knew (had full, clear and exact personal knowledge) that Jesus is out-from the authority of Herod (from the authoritative-power or permitted-right belonging to Herod) Pilate sent Jesus up towards Herod, since during that time he was also in Jerusalem.
This refers to Herod Antipas or Antipater who was the tetrarch over Galilee north of Samaria and Perea on the east side of the river Jordan, a son of Herod the Great (refer to in Luke 1:5). He was ruler of a fourth-part of the Roman-occupied province including the people in Galilee and subject to the Roman Emperor (refer to Luke 3:1).
[Reference: Matthew 27:2; Mark 15:1(b); Luke 3:1; John 18:28-38. Note: verbs with a superscript 2 (2) immediately following them indicate the “perfect” tense – details are provided in the “Relevant Notes” link of this study.]