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Matthew 10:1-42

At the end of "chapter 9" Matthew recorded what Jesus said: .37Then he says to his learning-disciples, "Indeed the harvest (is) much, but the workers (are) little; .38therefore you must supplicate the Lord of the harvest so-that He may throw-out workers into His harvest." Chapter 10 continues:

Matthew 10:1:

10:1And having called-towards-himself his twelve learning-disciples he gave to them authority of unclean spirits so-as to throw them out and to attend-to every disease and every sickness.

When Jesus had called/invited his twelve learning-disciples (students) towards himself he gave to them authority (authoritative-power, permitted-right) of, pertaining-to or over unclean spirits (spirits that are not free from mixture of that-which is against God, being mixed with something else, having impurity from God's viewpoint mixed with them, referring to the spirits following the devil, demons, devil-spirits) with the result and consequence to throw/cast them out from people and to attend-to (treat, be therapeutic, take care as necessary of) all/every disease (definite sickness causing mental and/or physical decline) and all/every sickness (physical softness or weakness which is debilitating).

As we read the four books of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, we must understand that Jesus was in the process of accomplishing redemption and salvation. Therefore the 'Acts chapter 2' gift of holy spirit (which is the spirit of Christ) that God made available by means of the Lord Jesus Christ on the day of Pentecost, could NOT be given to anybody before that day because it was not available to be given. However, God was able to give certain men/women holy spirit conditionally, which was upon the condition that he/she would believe and obey what God said. God gave holy spirit conditionally to Jesus as recorded in Matthew chapter 3, and then during Jesus' ministry at that time Jesus was able to delegate this authority to others so that they too could do what is recorded in verse 1 above. These twelve conditionally received holy spirit from God to enable them to carry-out what Jesus told them to do.

[Reference: Matthew 4:23 and 24; Mark 3:14 and 15; Luke 6:13.]

Verses 2-4:

.2But the names of the twelve apostles are these: first Simon the (one) being said (as) Peter and Andrew his brother, and James the (son) of Zebedee and John his brother, .3Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas and Matthew the tax-collector, James the (son) of Alphaeus and Thaddaeus, .4Simon the Canaanite and Judas the (one) of Iscariot the (one) also having given him over.

The word "apostle" means: a person sent-forth or sent-away by someone on a specific mission or assignment to someone else. Jesus sent these twelve learning-disciples forth on a specific mission, giving them the authority they needed to accomplish what he asked them to do. The names of the twelve apostles at this time were:

  1. first Simon, the Simon who is also called Peter (son of Jona, native of Bethsaida) and
  2. Andrew who was Simon Peter's brother and
  3. James (Boanerges), son of Zebedee and
  4. John who was James' brother,
  5. Philip (of Bethsaida) and
  6. Bartholomew,
  7. Thomas (Didymus) and
  8. Matthew the tax-collector (son of Alphaeus),
  9. James who was the son of Alphaeus and
  10. Thaddaeus (also called Judas/Jude or Lebbaeus),
  11. Simon the Canaanite (the Zealot) and
  12. Judas who was from the city of Kerioth (Judas Iscariot), who was also the one who gave Jesus along or over into the hands of the religious leaders who wanted to kill Jesus. This Judas was the only one of these twelve apostles not from the area of Galilee.

[Reference: Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:14-16; Acts 1:13.]

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